Linux 查看系统硬件信息(实例详解)

xiaoxiao2021-02-28  31

linux查看系统的硬件信息,并不像windows那么直观,这里我罗列了查看系统信息的实用命令,并做了分类,实例解说。

cpu

lscpu命令,查看的是cpu的统计信息.

blue@blue-pc:~$ lscpu Architecture: i686 #cpu架构 CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit Byte Order: Little Endian #小尾序 CPU(s): 4 #总共有4核 On-line CPU(s) list: 0-3 Thread(s) per core: 1 #每个cpu核,只能支持一个线程,即不支持超线程 Core(s) per socket: 4 #每个cpu,有4个核 Socket(s): 1 #总共有1一个cpu Vendor ID: GenuineIntel #cpu产商 intel CPU family: 6 Model: 42 Stepping: 7 CPU MHz: 1600.000 BogoMIPS: 5986.12 Virtualization: VT-x #支持cpu虚拟化技术 L1d cache: 32K L1i cache: 32K L2 cache: 256K L3 cache: 6144K

 

查看/proc/cpuinfo,可以知道每个cpu信息,如每个CPU的型号,主频等。

#cat /proc/cpuinfo processor : 0 vendor_id : GenuineIntel cpu family : 6 model : 42 model name : Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-2320 CPU @ 3.00GHz .....

上面输出的是第一个cpu部分信息,还有3个cpu信息省略了。

 

内存

概要查看内存情况

free -m total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 3926 3651 274 0 12 404 -/+ buffers/cache: 3235 691 Swap: 9536 31 9505

这里的单位是MB,总共的内存是3926MB。

 

查看内存详细使用

# cat /proc/meminfo MemTotal: 4020868 kB MemFree: 230884 kB Buffers: 7600 kB Cached: 454772 kB SwapCached: 836 kB .....

 

查看内存硬件信息

dmidecode -t memory # dmidecode 2.11 SMBIOS 2.7 present. Handle 0x0008, DMI type 16, 23 bytes Physical Memory Array Location: System Board Or Motherboard .... Maximum Capacity: 32 GB .... Handle 0x000A, DMI type 17, 34 bytes .... Memory Device Array Handle: 0x0008 Error Information Handle: Not Provided Total Width: 64 bits Data Width: 64 bits Size: 4096 MB .....

我的主板有4个槽位,只用了一个槽位,上面插了一条4096MB的内存。

 

磁盘

查看硬盘和分区分布

# lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 465.8G 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 1G 0 part /boot ├─sda2 8:2 0 9.3G 0 part [SWAP] ├─sda3 8:3 0 74.5G 0 part / ├─sda4 8:4 0 1K 0 part ├─sda5 8:5 0 111.8G 0 part /home └─sda6 8:6 0 269.2G 0 part

显示很直观

 

如果要看硬盘和分区的详细信息

# fdisk -l Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders, total 976773168 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00023728 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 * 2048 2148351 1073152 83 Linux /dev/sda2 2148352 21680127 9765888 82 Linux swap / Solaris /dev/sda3 21680128 177930239 78125056 83 Linux /dev/sda4 177932286 976771071 399419393 5 Extended/dev/sda5 177932288 412305407 117186560 83 Linux /dev/sda6 412307456 976771071 282231808 83 Linux

 

网卡

查看网卡硬件信息

# lspci | grep -i 'eth' 02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 06)

 

查看系统的所有网络接口

# ifconfig -a eth0 Link encap:以太网 硬件地址 b8:97:5a:17:b3:8f ..... lo Link encap:本地环回 .....

或者是

ip link show 1: lo: <LOOPBACK> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state DOWN link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000 link/ether b8:97:5a:17:b3:8f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

 

如果要查看某个网络接口的详细信息,例如eth0的详细参数和指标

# ethtool eth0 Settings for eth0: Supported ports: [ TP MII ] Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full #支持千兆半双工,全双工模式 Supported pause frame use: No Supports auto-negotiation: Yes #支持自适应模式,一般都支持 Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric Receive-only Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes #默认使用自适应模式 Link partner advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full ..... Speed: 100Mb/s #现在网卡的速度是100Mb,网卡使用自适应模式,所以推测路由是100Mb,导致网卡从支持千兆,变成要支持百兆 Duplex: Full #全双工 ..... Link detected: yes #表示有网线连接,和路由是通的

 

 

其他

查看pci信息,即主板所有硬件槽信息。

lspci 00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family DRAM Controller (rev 09) #主板芯片 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 09) #显卡 00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Panther Point USB xHCI Host Controller (rev 04) #usb控制器 00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Panther Point MEI Controller #1 (rev 04) 00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Panther Point USB Enhanced Host Controller #2 (rev 04) 00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation Panther Point High Definition Audio Controller (rev 04) #声卡 00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Panther Point PCI Express Root Port 1 (rev c4) #pci 插槽 00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Panther Point PCI Express Root Port 3 (rev c4) 00:1c.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Panther Point PCI Express Root Port 4 (rev c4) 00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Panther Point USB Enhanced Host Controller #1 (rev 04) 00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Panther Point LPC Controller (rev 04) 00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation Panther Point 4 port SATA Controller [IDE mode] (rev 04) #硬盘接口 00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation Panther Point SMBus Controller (rev 04) 00:1f.5 IDE interface: Intel Corporation Panther Point 2 port SATA Controller [IDE mode] (rev 04) #硬盘接口 02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 06) #网卡 03:00.0 PCI bridge: Integrated Technology Express, Inc. Device 8893 (rev 41)

如果要更详细的信息:lspci -v 或者 lspci -vv

如果要看设备树:lscpi -t

 

查看bios信息

# dmidecode -t bios ...... BIOS Information Vendor: American Megatrends Inc. Version: 4.6.5 Release Date: 04/25/2012 ....... BIOS Revision: 4.6 ......

dmidecode以一种可读的方式dump出机器的DMI(Desktop Management Interface)信息。这些信息包括了硬件以及BIOS,既可以得到当前的配置,也可以得到系统支持的最大配置,比如说支持的最大内存数等。

如果要查看所有有用信息

dmidecode -q

里面包含了很多硬件信息。

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