UNION： 去除重复记录 结果中的总记录数可能< employees的记录数+job_history的记录数SELECT employee_id, job_id FROM employees UNION SELECT employee_id, job_id FROM job_history;
UNION ALL 保留重复记录， 结果中的总记录数一定= employees的记录数+job_history的记录数SELECT employee_id, job_id, department_id FROM employees UNION ALL SELECT employee_id, job_id, department_id FROM job_history ORDER BY employee_id;
特殊情况： 当select union 同一张表时，某个字段信息使用sys_guid()进行代替时，会出现union的查询结果数大于union all的查询结果数的情况。
You can combine multiple queries using the set operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS. All set operators have equal precedence. If a SQL statement contains multiple set operators, then Oracle Database evaluates them from the left to right unless parentheses explicitly specify another order.
The corresponding expressions in the select lists of the component queries of a compound query must match in number and must be in the same data type group (such as numeric or character).
If component queries select character data, then the data type of the return values are determined as follows:
If both queries select values of data type CHAR of equal length, then the returned values have data type CHAR of that length. If the queries select values of CHAR with different lengths, then the returned value is VARCHAR2 with the length of the larger CHAR value.
If either or both of the queries select values of data type VARCHAR2, then the returned values have data type VARCHAR2.
If component queries select numeric data, then the data type of the return values is determined by numeric precedence:
If any query selects values of type BINARY_DOUBLE, then the returned values have data type BINARY_DOUBLE.
If no query selects values of type BINARY_DOUBLE but any query selects values of type BINARY_FLOAT, then the returned values have data type BINARY_FLOAT.
If all queries select values of type NUMBER, then the returned values have data type NUMBER.
In queries using set operators, Oracle does not perform implicit conversion across data type groups. Therefore, if the corresponding expressions of component queries resolve to both character data and numeric data, Oracle returns an error.
Examples： The following query is valid:SELECT 3 FROM DUAL INTERSECT SELECT 3f FROM DUAL; This is implicitly converted to the following compound query: SELECT TO_BINARY_FLOAT(3) FROM DUAL INTERSECT SELECT 3f FROM DUAL; The following query returns an error: SELECT '3' FROM DUAL INTERSECT SELECT 3f FROM DUAL;
Restrictions on the Set Operators The set operators are subject to the following restrictions:
The set operators are not valid on columns of type BLOB, CLOB, BFILE, VARRAY, or nested table.
The UNION, INTERSECT, and MINUS operators are not valid on LONG columns.
If the select list preceding the set operator contains an expression, then you must provide a column alias for the expression in order to refer to it in the order_by_clause.
You cannot also specify the for_update_clause with the set operators.
You cannot specify the order_by_clause in the subquery of these operators.
You cannot use these operators in SELECT statements containing TABLE collection expressions.
To comply with emerging SQL standards, a future release of Oracle will give the INTERSECT operator greater precedence than the other set operators. Therefore, you should use parentheses to specify order of evaluation in queries that use the INTERSECT operator with other set operators.
UNION Example： The following statement combines the results of two queries with the UNION operator, which eliminates duplicate selected rows. This statement shows that you must match data type (using the TO_CHAR function) when columns do not exist in one or the other table:SELECT location_id, department_name "Department", TO_CHAR(NULL) "Warehouse" FROM departments UNION SELECT location_id, TO_CHAR(NULL) "Department", warehouse_name FROM warehouses; LOCATION_ID Department Warehouse ----------- ------------------------------ --------------------------- 1400 IT 1400 Southlake, Texas 1500 Shipping 1500 San Francisco 1600 New Jersey 1700 Accounting 1700 Administration 1700 Benefits 1700 Construction 1700 Contracting 1700 Control And Credit ...
UNION ALL Example： The UNION operator returns only distinct rows that appear in either result, while the UNION ALL operator returns all rows. The UNION ALL operator does not eliminate duplicate selected rows:SELECT product_id FROM order_items UNION SELECT product_id FROM inventories ORDER BY product_id; SELECT location_id FROM locations UNION ALL SELECT location_id FROM departments ORDER BY location_id;
A location_id value that appears multiple times in either or both queries (such as ‘1700’) is returned only once by the UNION operator, but multiple times by the UNION ALL operator.
INTERSECT Example： The following statement combines the results with the INTERSECT operator, which returns only those unique rows returned by both queries:SELECT product_id FROM inventories INTERSECT SELECT product_id FROM order_items ORDER BY product_id;
MINUS Example： The following statement combines results with the MINUS operator, which returns only unique rows returned by the first query but not by the second:SELECT product_id FROM inventories MINUS SELECT product_id FROM order_items ORDER BY product_id;