java线程池2-四种常用的线程池

xiaoxiao2021-02-28  26

Java通过Executors提供四种线程池,分别为: newCachedThreadPool 创建一个可缓存线程池,如果线程池长度超过处理需要,可灵活回收空闲线程,若无可回收,则新建线程。 newFixedThreadPool 创建一个定长线程池,可控制线程最大并发数,超出的线程会在队列中等待。 newScheduledThreadPool 创建一个定长线程池,支持定时及周期性任务执行。 newSingleThreadExecutor 创建一个单线程化的线程池,它只会用唯一的工作线程来执行任务,保证所有任务按照指定顺序(FIFO, LIFO, 优先级)执行。

(1) newCachedThreadPool

创建一个可缓存线程池,如果线程池长度超过处理需要,可灵活回收空闲线程,若无可回收,则新建线程。示例代码如下:

package test; import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService; import java.util.concurrent.Executors; public class ThreadPoolExecutorTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ExecutorService cachedThreadPool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { final int index = i; try { Thread.sleep(index * 1000); } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } cachedThreadPool.execute(new Runnable() { public void run() { System.out.println(index); } }); } } }

线程池为无限大,当执行第二个任务时第一个任务已经完成,会复用执行第一个任务的线程,而不用每次新建线程。

(2) newFixedThreadPool

创建一个定长线程池,可控制线程最大并发数,超出的线程会在队列中等待。示例代码如下:

package test; import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService; import java.util.concurrent.Executors; public class ThreadPoolExecutorTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ExecutorService fixedThreadPool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(3); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { final int index = i; fixedThreadPool.execute(new Runnable() { public void run() { try { System.out.println(index); Thread.sleep(2000); } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } }); } } }

因为线程池大小为3,每个任务输出index后sleep 2秒,所以每两秒打印3个数字。 定长线程池的大小最好根据系统资源进行设置。如Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors()

(3) newScheduledThreadPool

创建一个定长线程池,支持定时及周期性任务执行。延迟执行示例代码如下:

package test; import java.util.concurrent.Executors; import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledExecutorService; import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit; public class ThreadPoolExecutorTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ScheduledExecutorService scheduledThreadPool = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(5); scheduledThreadPool.schedule(new Runnable() { public void run() { System.out.println("delay 3 seconds"); } }, 3, TimeUnit.SECONDS); } }

表示延迟3秒执行。 定期执行示例代码如下:

package test; import java.util.concurrent.Executors; import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledExecutorService; import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit; public class ThreadPoolExecutorTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ScheduledExecutorService scheduledThreadPool = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(5); scheduledThreadPool.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() { public void run() { System.out.println("delay 1 seconds, and excute every 3 seconds"); } }, 1, 3, TimeUnit.SECONDS); } }

表示延迟1秒后每3秒执行一次。

(4) newSingleThreadExecutor

创建一个单线程化的线程池,它只会用唯一的工作线程来执行任务,保证所有任务按照指定顺序(FIFO, LIFO, 优先级)执行。示例代码如下:

package test; import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService; import java.util.concurrent.Executors; public class ThreadPoolExecutorTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ExecutorService singleThreadExecutor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor(); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { final int index = i; singleThreadExecutor.execute(new Runnable() { public void run() { try { System.out.println(index); Thread.sleep(2000); } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } }); } } }

结果依次输出,相当于顺序执行各个任务。 你可以使用JDK自带的监控工具来监控我们创建的线程数量,运行一个不终止的线程,创建指定量的线程,来观察: 工具目录:C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.6.0_06\bin\jconsole.exe 运行程序做稍微修改:

package test; import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService; import java.util.concurrent.Executors; public class ThreadPoolExecutorTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ExecutorService singleThreadExecutor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(); for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) { final int index = i; singleThreadExecutor.execute(new Runnable() { public void run() { try { while(true) { System.out.println(index); Thread.sleep(10 * 1000); } } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } }); try { Thread.sleep(500); } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } }

效果如下:

选择我们运行的程序:

监控运行状态

转载自:http://cuisuqiang.iteye.com/blog/2019372

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