vue 请求采用axios

xiaoxiao2021-02-28  14

axios

基于 Promise 的 HTTP 请求客户端,可同时在浏览器和 node.js 中使用

功能特性

在浏览器中发送 XMLHttpRequests 请求在 node.js 中发送 http请求支持 Promise API拦截请求和响应转换请求和响应数据自动转换 JSON 数据客户端支持保护安全免受 XSRF 攻击

浏览器支持

安装

使用 bower:

$ bower install axios

使用 npm:

$ npm install axios

例子

发送一个 GET 请求

// Make a request for a user with a given ID axios.get('/user?ID=12345') .then(function (response) { console.log(response); }) .catch(function (response) { console.log(response); }); // Optionally the request above could also be done as axios.get('/user', { params: { ID: 12345 } }) .then(function (response) { console.log(response); }) .catch(function (response) { console.log(response); });

发送一个 POST 请求

axios.post('/user', { firstName: 'Fred', lastName: 'Flintstone' }) .then(function (response) { console.log(response); }) .catch(function (response) { console.log(response); });

发送多个并发请求

function getUserAccount() { return axios.get('/user/12345'); } function getUserPermissions() { return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions'); } axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()]) .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) { // Both requests are now complete }));

axios API

可以通过给 axios传递对应的参数来定制请求:

axios(config)
// Send a POST request axios({ method: 'post', url: '/user/12345', data: { firstName: 'Fred', lastName: 'Flintstone' } });
axios(url[, config])
// Sned a GET request (default method) axios('/user/12345');

请求方法别名

为方便起见,我们为所有支持的请求方法都提供了别名

axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
注意

当使用别名方法时, url、 method 和 data 属性不需要在 config 参数里面指定。

并发

处理并发请求的帮助方法

axios.all(iterable)
axios.spread(callback)

创建一个实例

你可以用自定义配置创建一个新的 axios 实例。

axios.create([config])
var instance = axios.create({ baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/', timeout: 1000, headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'} });

实例方法

所有可用的实例方法都列在下面了,指定的配置将会和该实例的配置合并。

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])

请求配置

下面是可用的请求配置项,只有 url 是必需的。如果没有指定 method ,默认的请求方法是 GET。

{ // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request url: '/user', // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request method: 'get', // default // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute. // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs // to methods of that instance. baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/', // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // The last function in the array must return a string or an ArrayBuffer transformRequest: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data return data; }], // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before // it is passed to then/catch transformResponse: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data return data; }], // `headers` are custom headers to be sent headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'}, // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request params: { ID: 12345 }, // `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params` // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/) paramsSerializer: function(params) { return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'}) }, // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be a string, an ArrayBuffer or a hash data: { firstName: 'Fred' }, // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out. // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted. timeout: 1000, // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests // should be made using credentials withCredentials: false, // default // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier. // Call `resolve` or `reject` and supply a valid response (see [response docs](#response-api)). adapter: function (resolve, reject, config) { /* ... */ }, // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials. // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`. auth: { username: 'janedoe', password: 's00pers3cret' } // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with // options are 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'document', 'json', 'text' responseType: 'json', // default // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default // `progress` allows handling of progress events for 'POST' and 'PUT uploads' // as well as 'GET' downloads progress: function(progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event } }

响应的数据结构

响应的数据包括下面的信息:

{ // `data` is the response that was provided by the server data: {}, // `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response status: 200, // `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response statusText: 'OK', // `headers` the headers that the server responded with headers: {}, // `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request config: {} }

当使用 then 或者 catch 时, 你会收到下面的响应:

axios.get('/user/12345') .then(function(response) { console.log(response.data); console.log(response.status); console.log(response.statusText); console.log(response.headers); console.log(response.config); });

默认配置

你可以为每一个请求指定默认配置。

全局 axios 默认配置

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com'; axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN; axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

自定义实例默认配置

// Set config defaults when creating the instance var instance = axios.create({ baseURL: 'https://api.example.com' }); // Alter defaults after instance has been created instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

配置的优先顺序

Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in lib/defaults.js, then defaults property of the instance, and finally config argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here's an example.

// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library // At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library var instance = axios.create(); // Override timeout default for the library // Now all requests will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out instance.defaults.timeout = 2500; // Override timeout for this request as it's known to take a long time instance.get('/longRequest', { timeout: 5000 });

拦截器

你可以在处理 then 或 catch 之前拦截请求和响应

// 添加一个请求拦截器 axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) { // Do something before request is sent return config; }, function (error) { // Do something with request error return Promise.reject(error); }); // 添加一个响应拦截器 axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) { // Do something with response data return response; }, function (error) { // Do something with response error return Promise.reject(error); });

移除一个拦截器:

var myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/}); axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

你可以给一个自定义的 axios 实例添加拦截器:

var instance = axios.create(); instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

错误处理

axios.get('/user/12345') .catch(function (response) { if (response instanceof Error) { // Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error console.log('Error', response.message); } else { // The request was made, but the server responded with a status code // that falls out of the range of 2xx console.log(response.data); console.log(response.status); console.log(response.headers); console.log(response.config); } });

Promises

axios 依赖一个原生的 ES6 Promise 实现,如果你的浏览器环境不支持 ES6 Promises,你需要引入 polyfill

TypeScript

axios 包含一个 TypeScript 定义

/// <reference path="axios.d.ts" /> import * as axios from 'axios'; axios.get('/user?ID=12345');

Credits

axios is heavily inspired by the $http service provided in Angular. Ultimately axios is an effort to provide a standalone $http-like service for use outside of Angular.

License

MIT

转载:https://www.awesomes.cn/repo/mzabriskie/axios

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